Erik Erickson gave a psychosocial development model explaining various stages of human development. According to this model, human life mainly comprises eight stages: Trust vs Mistrust, Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs Guilt, Industry vs Inferiority, Identity vs Role Confusion, Intimacy vs Isolation, Generativity vs Stagnation, and Ego Integrity vs Despair.

This article talks about the first stage i.e. Trust vs Mistrust and the factors that influence this stage.


Trust vs. mistrust is a fundamental concept in human development, particularly in the field of psychology. It refers to the first stage in Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, where infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust toward their caregivers. This stage, which occurs during the first 18 months of life, lays the foundation for future relationships and influences an individual’s worldview.

During the early stages of life, infants are entirely dependent on their caregivers for their physical and emotional needs. They rely on their caregivers for nourishment, comfort, and protection. The way in which caregivers respond to their needs shapes the infant’s perception of the world and their sense of security. If caregivers consistently and sensitively meet these needs, infants develop a sense of trust. They learn to rely on others, believe that their needs will be met, and develop a positive outlook on relationships and the world around them. Moreover, it will also help in developing self-worth and foster a sense of belonging in them.

Trust is an essential component of healthy human development. It forms the basis for building secure attachments, fostering positive self-esteem, and developing healthy coping mechanisms. When individuals have a strong foundation of trust, they are more likely to form secure and fulfilling relationships throughout their lives. Trust allows individuals to be vulnerable, open, and accepting of others, which contributes to emotional well-being and social connectedness.

On the other hand, when caregivers are inconsistent, unresponsive, or neglectful in meeting the infant’s needs, the infant develops a sense of mistrust. Mistrust can arise when caregivers are emotionally unavailable or fail to provide the necessary care and attention. Infants who experience mistrust may become anxious, fearful, or suspicious of others. They may develop a negative worldview, struggle with forming healthy relationships, and have difficulty trusting others.

Factors for Developing Trust vs Mistrust:

The development of trust vs. mistrust is influenced by various factors:

1: Quality of Caregiving:

The quality of caregiving plays a vital role. Responsive, affectionate, and consistent caregiving promotes the development of trust, while neglectful or abusive caregiving contributes to mistrust. Infants need to feel secure and supported in their caregivers’ presence to develop a sense of trust.

The quality of trust is not dependent upon the amount of food or clothing. But it largely depends upon the maternal relationship at this stage. Mothers nurture the infants and build a sense of trust in them. The sensitive care along with trust in self provides identity to the child. The child will feel ready for the world and won’t feel lost in adulthood.

2: Social Environment:

The social environment is another crucial factor for developing trust. Societal factors such as poverty, violence, and instability can disrupt the caregiving relationship and hinder the development of trust. Conversely, a safe and nurturing environment with supportive communities can contribute to the establishment of trust.

A toxic religious environment, characterized by contradictions between words and actions, may pose a threat to the child’s trust. These contradictions will affect the child making him unsure of what is right or wrong. Parental support and care will help in navigating those challenges and developing a sense of trust even in challenging environments.

3: Differences:

Cultural and individual differences can shape the development of trust vs. mistrust. Cultural norms and beliefs regarding parenting and child-rearing practices influence how caregivers interact with infants and meet their needs. Individual differences in temperament also play a role. Some infants may be more resilient and adaptable, while others may be more sensitive and prone to mistrust.

It is important to note that trust vs. mistrust is not a binary concept; it exists on a continuum. It can’t be defined as two extremes. Infants may develop varying degrees of trust or mistrust based on their experiences and the consistency of caregiving. Additionally, trust can be built or repaired over time through corrective experiences, therapy, or supportive relationships.

The Overall Impact:

The impact of trust vs. mistrust extends beyond infancy. The early experiences of trust or mistrust serve as a blueprint for future relationships and influence an individual’s ability to form attachments, develop self-esteem, and engage in healthy social interactions. Adults who have a strong foundation of trust are more likely to approach relationships with openness, establish healthy boundaries, and have fulfilling connections with others.

Conversely, individuals who have experienced significant mistrust may struggle with forming and maintaining relationships. They may have difficulty trusting others, fear vulnerability, and exhibit defensive or avoidant behaviors. Mistrust can lead to emotional distress, isolation, and impaired social functioning. It can manifest as psychological symptoms such as social withdrawal, dissociation, and depression.

Given the significance of trust vs. mistrust in human development, it is essential to support the healthy formation of trust in infants and provide interventions for individuals who have experienced significant mistrust. Parenting education programs, early intervention services, and therapeutic interventions such as inner child work can play a crucial role in fostering trust and repairing mistrust.


In conclusion, trust vs. mistrust is a pivotal stage in human development that occurs during infancy. It lays the foundation for future relationships and influences an individual’s worldview. Trust developed through consistent and responsive caregiving, promotes healthy development, secure attachments, and positive self-esteem.

In contrast, mistrust, resulting from inconsistent or neglectful caregiving, can lead to negative perceptions of the world, difficulties in forming relationships, and emotional distress. Understanding the significance of trust vs. mistrust can help us create environments that foster trust, promote healthy development, and support individuals who have experienced mistrust.